Tuesday, May 7, 2019

Concrete Grades,Types, Ingredients, Properties and Strength

Concrete is a construction material composed of cement, fine aggregates (sand) and coarse aggregates mixed with water which hardens with time. Concrete Grades,Types, Ingredients, Properties and Strength details you can find here.

Concrete Grades

Grades of concrete are defined by the strength and composition of the concrete, and the minimum strength the concrete should have following 28 days of initial construction. The grade of concrete is understood in measurements of MPa, where M stands for mix and the MPa denotes the overall strength.

Grade of Concrete        Mix Ratio      Compressive strength in 28 days
                                 M5                  1 : 5 : 10                 5 MPa
                               M7.5                  1 : 4 : 8              7.5 MPa
                                M10                  1 : 3 : 6               10 MPa
                                M15                  1 : 2 : 4               15 MPa
                                M20                   1 : 1.5 : 3               20 MPa

Standard Grade of Concrete

                                M25                  1 : 1 : 2               25 MPa
                                M30                 Design Mix               30 MPa
                                M35                 Design Mix               35 MPa
                                M40                 Design Mix               40 MPa
                                M45                 Design Mix               45 MPa

High Strength Concrete Grades

                                M50                 Design Mix               50 MPa
                                M55                 Design Mix               55 MPa
                                M60                 Design Mix               60 MPa
                                M65                 Design Mix               65 MPai
                                M70                 Design Mix                70 MPa

Concrete Grades,Types, Ingredients, Properties and Strength
Concrete pouring

Type of Concrete

  1. Normal Strength Concrete
  2. Plain or Ordinary Concrete
  3. Reinforced Concrete
  4. Prestressed Concrete
  5. Precast Concrete
  6. Light – Weight Concrete
  7. High-Density Concrete
  8. Air Entrained Concrete
  9. Ready Mix Concrete
  10. Polymer Concrete
    1. Polymer concrete
    2. Polymer cement concrete
    3. Polymer impregnated concrete
  11. High-Strength Concrete
  12. High-Performance Concrete
  13. Self – Consolidated Concrete
  14. Shotcrete Concrete
  15. Pervious Concrete
  16. Vacuum Concrete
  17. Pumped Concrete
  18. Stamped Concrete
  19. Limecrete
  20. Asphalt Concrete
  21. Roller Compacted Concrete
  22. Rapid Strength Concrete
  23. Glass Concrete

Concrete Ingredients

1. Cement
2. Coarse aggregate
3. Fine aggregate
4. Water

1. Cement 

The cement and water form a paste that coats the aggregate and sand in the mix. The paste hardens and binds the aggregates and sand together.
Portland cement is the commonly used type of cement for production of concrete.

2. Coarse aggregate

Gravel or crushed stone is the coarse aggregate.

3. Fine aggregate

Sand is the fine aggregate.

4. Water

Water is needed to chemically react with the cement (hydration) and to provide work-ability of concrete. The amount of water in the mix compared with the amount of cement is called the water/cement ratio. The lower the w/c ratio, the stronger the concrete. (higher strength, less permeability)  

Concrete Grades,Types, Ingredients, Properties and Strength

Concrete Properties

1. Concrete gain strength in presence of water, but most of the materials rust or decay when they are wet.
2. Concrete can be moulded to any shape at normal temperature and pressure.
3. Concrete resist attack of insects.
4. Concrete is fire and sound proof.
5. Strength of concrete is high.
6. Strength of concrete can be further increased by reinforcement, prestressing etc.
7. Concrete becomes stronger with age.
8. Frequent repairs, painting etc not required for concrete.
9. It is economical and strong compared to other construction materials.
10.Concrete can be pumped to any difficult places.
11.The material for concrete is easily available.
12.Concrete can be used to apply modern construction techniques for modern construction works.

Compressive Strength of Concrete

Compressive strength is the ability of material or structure to carry the loads on its surface without any crack or deflection. A material under compression tends to reduce the size, while in tension, size elongates.

Compressive Strength of Concrete at Various Ages

The strength of concrete increases with age. Table shows the strength of concrete at different ages in comparison with the strength at 28 days after casting.
AgeStrength percent
1 day16%
3 days40%
7 days65%
14 days90%
28 days99%

Compressive Strength of Concrete at 7 and 28 Days

Grade of ConcreteMinimum compressive strength N/mm2 at 7 daysSpecified characteristic compressive strength (N/mm2) at 28 days

Concrete Mix Design

Concrete Mix Design is all about achieving target strength, water cement ratio and perfect proportions of Cement, Sand and Aggregate to produce a good concrete to achieve its target strength.

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